Each sachet contains:


Crystalline Glucosamine sulfate
Equivalent to: Glucosamine sulfate
                             Sodium Chloride

1884.0 mg
1500.0 mg
384.0 mg

Each capsule contains:


Crystalline Glucosamine sulfate
Equivalent to: Glucosamine sulfate
                             Sodium Chloride

628 mg
500 mg
128 mg

How does Viartril®-S work?


Anabolic-Effect – Viartril®-S stimulates the synthesis of proteoglycans, the building blocks of the Cartilage Matrix 

(4,5,6) .


Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Catabolic – Viartril®-S depress cartilage degradation activities by inhibiting the action of catabolic enzymes (6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15).



What is Glucosamine Sulfate?


Glucosamine Sulfate is the salt of the natural amino-sugar glucosamine, which is normally synthesized in the healthy body and is the preferred substances that form the cartilage matrix that are essential for cartilage health and function.



Is the original Glucosamine Sulfate contained in Viartril®-S different from other glucosamine products? 


Glucosamine Sulfate, for chemical reasons is a highly unstable compound and cannot exist unless in stabilised form. Products claiming to contain glucosamine sulfate without declaring how it is stabilised, most likely do not contain sufficient of this compound.  


Rotta Research Group has invented and patented several years ago a method to stabilize glucosamine sulfate, through a chemical process of co-precipitation with sodium chloride, thus obtaining Crystalline Glucosamine Sulfate (16).


In an article published in Journal of American Nutraceutical Association, the university of Maryland in U.S.A. tested 57 brands of chondroitin and glucosamine with or without chondroitin. They found that 84% of the products did not meet label claims, with contents ranging from as low as 0% to over 115% of the claims (17)


In a saturation study conducted where the content of glucosamine sulfate from Malaysia and Singapore were microscopically examined, Viartril®-S  is packed and stacked with active beta needle crystal (18).











Prof Ivo Setnikar in his clinical review found that the content of Glucosamine in Viartril®-S is 90% absorbed by the body (19)


How much glucosamine should one take daily?


According to the GUIDE studies published, Glucosamine Sulfate at the Oral once-daily dose of 1500mg is the preferred symptomatic medication in knee OA (20) .


1 x Sachet (1500mg)/day

3 x Capsules (500mg)/day


This statement is further supported by an IC50 trial, where 1500mg of Viartril®-S is able to provide maximum Glucosamine Concentration of 8.9μM in the body. This is significantly higher than the minimal requirement of 6.2μM to be effective in treating OA (21).

Diagram 1.1


IC50 trial results chart showing Viartril®-S  providing maximum Glucosamine Concentration of 8.9μM. This is higher than the minimal requirement of 6.2μM

How long does it take for Viartril®-S to work?


As Viartril®-S works at the root of the problem, it will take within 2 weeks to 4 weeks to observe the improvement in pain and function (21).



What is the optimal treatment duration with Viartril®-S?


Clinical studies have shown that the optimal short-term treatment duration with Viartril®-S should be at least 3 months. However, recent long-term trials have shown that when taken continuously for at least 3 years, Viartril®-S can prevent the progression of both symptom and joint structure changes, without major safety concerns (1,2,3).



Is Viartril®-S a safe product?


During 2 long-term 3-year studies, the safety of Viartril®-S was found to be similar to placebo (“sugar-pill”). Millions have been treated with Viartril®-S with very few and mild adverse reactions; may include gastric discomfort and pain, constipation, diarrhea, meteorism and nausea. These events are few and similar to the ones observed with placebo       (2,3,11,12).



Viartril®-S contains sodium: Is it contraindicated in hypertension?


The sodium chloride (NaCl) in Viartril®-S is to stabilize the Glucosamine Sulfate through crystallization.NaCl content is 0.128g in each 500mg capsule. Therefore, the recommended daily dosage of capsules contain 0.384g NaCl (similar to 1 sachet).This is small compared with our standard daily intake of 6-10g of NaCl. For a hypertensive patient, a mild dietary sodium restriction of up to 5g NaCl is recommended. Therefore, the small quantity of sodium in Viartril®-S will not affect it. No health authority has ever contraindicated Viartril®-S in hypertension.



Does Viartril®-S impairs glucose metabolism and/or is contraindicated in diabetic patients?


Both short-term and long-term  (up to 3 years) clinical studies with Viartril®-S have shown that glucose plasma levels are not modified in normal patients, or in those with relatively high baseline glucose levels, or even in diabetics. No health authority has ever contraindicated Viartril®-S in diabetics (1,2,3).



Is Viartril®-S safe for shell-fish allergy patients?


Viartril®-S is obtained by a synthesis process (ensuring a high degree of purity), starting from a substance called chitin which is of sea origin.Chitin is a highly purified polysaccharide and it does not contain protein impurities responsible for allergic reactions in certain individuals. Any other potential impurity would be eliminated by the synthesis process. Viartril®-S is therefore not contraindicated for individuals allergic to shell-fish.



Are there any interactions with other drugs when using Viartril®-S?


Due to its physic-chemical and pharmacokinetic properties, Glucosamine Sulfate is a compound with no potential for pharmacokinetic or other interactions with any other drugs.





(1) Rovalti LC et al: The Clinical profile of glucosamine sulfate as a selective symptom modifying drug in osteoarthritis: Current data and perspectives. Osteoarth.Cartil.5(Suppl. A), 72 (1997)

(2)Reginster JY et al: Long-term effects of glucosamine sulfate on osteoarthritis progression: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Lancet 357, 251-256 (2001)

(3) Pavelka K et al: Glucosamine sulfate use and delay of progression of knee osteoarthritis: a 3-year, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Arch. Intern. Med. 162, 2113-2123 (2002)

(4) Vidal y Plana RR, Bizzarri D, Rovati AL. Articular cartilage pharmacology. In vitro studies on glucosamine and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Pharmacol Res Commun 1978; 10: 557-569.

(5) Bassleer C, Rovati L, Franchimont P. Stimulation of proteoglycan production by glucosamine sulfate in chondrocytes isolate from human osteoarthritic articular cartilage in vitro. Osteaoarthritis Cartilage 1998;6:427-434.

(6) Jimenez SA, Dodge GR. The effects of glucosamine sulfate (GS04) on human chondrocyte gene expression. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1997; 5: 72.

(7) Piperno M, Reboul P, Hellio Le Graverand Mp, Peschard MJ, Annefeld M, Richard M, Vignon E. Glucosamine Sulfate modulates dysregulated activities of human osteoarthritic chondrocytes in vitro. Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 2000; 8:207-212.

(8) Dodge GR, Hawkins DF, Jimenez SA. Modulation of aggrecan, MMP-1, and MMP-3 production by Glucosamine sulfate in cultured human osteoarthritis articular chondrocytes Arthritis Rheum, 1999; 42 S253.

(9) Sandy JD, Gamett D, Thompson V, Verscharen C Chondrocyte-mediated catabolism of aggrecan aggreganase-dependent cleavage induced by interleukin-1 or retinoic acid can be inhibited by glucosamine BiochemJ, 1998; 335 59-66

(10) R Largo et al: Glucosamine inhibits IL-1b induced NFkB activation in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes. OsteoArthritis and Cartilage. 11, 290-298 (2003)

(11) Setnikar I, Cereda R, Pacini MA, Revel L. Antireactive properties of glucosamine sulfate. Arzneimitteltorschung.? Drug Res.1991; 41: 157-161.

(12) Setnikar I, Pacini MA, Revel L Antiarthritic effects of glucosamine sulfate studies on animal models Arznelmittel Forschung, 1991; 41 542-545.

(13) Shikhman AR, Alaaeddine N, Lotz MK N-acetylglucosamine prevents IL-l-mediated activation of chondrocytes Arthritis Rheum, 1999; 42 S381.

(14) Pellettier JP, Jovanovic D, Lascau-Coman V, Hilal G, Fernandes JC, Martel-Pellettier J Relevance of animal models to clinical disease. Glucosamine sulfate reduces the structural changes in dog experimental osteoarthritis: beneficial effect through suppression of the expression of collagenase-l Proceedings of a Symposium held at the XIV European League against Rheumatism Congress, Glasgow, June 1999.

(15) Piperno M, Reboul P, Hellio Le Graverand MP, Peschard MJ, Annefeld M, Richard M, Vignon E. Osteoarthritic cartilage fibrillation is associated with a decrease in chondrocyte adhesion to fibronectin Osteoarthritis Cartilage; 1998; 6 393- 399.

(16) Den Wan M, Volpi G, US Patent 5,0447, 107: 1997 (17) Adebowale et al. JANA Vol. 3 (1): 37-44 (2000)

(17) Adebowale et al. JANA Vol. 3 (1): 37-44 (2000)

(18) Research work on glucosamine preparations conducted by Prof. Thithapandha, A., Mahidol University. Thailand

(19) Setnikar et al. Arzneimittelforschung. 1993 Oct’ 43 (10): 1109-13

(20) Arthritis & Rheumatism Vol 56, No 2, Feb 2007, pp 555-567

(21) T Piepoli et al. American College of Rheumatology Annual Scientific Meeting 2005, Vol 117, 9, 643-649 (2005)

Viartril®-S is the Crystalline Glucosamine Sulfate. It is the original and only Glucosamine Sulfate that has been fully tested in clinical trials for safety and efficacy.Clinical studies and the world-wide clinical experience have shown that Viartril®-S relieves the symptoms (pain and function limitation) of osteoarthritis (1). Recent, state-of-the-art clinical trials have also demonstrated that Viartril®-S is the first compound that, when given for long-term treatment courses (i.e. at least 3 years), can decrease the progression of osteoarthritis (2,3).